Dynamics of the Species Composition of Phytocenoses of Floodplain Mountain Meadows of the Carpathians Subject to Superficial Improvement

Abstract.

The conducted research of various authors has developed a number of measures for surface improvement of meadowland in various soil and climatic conditions. However, studies on the influence of such surface improvement measures as the use of organic and mineral fertilizers and sowing of perennial grasses and legumes in the sod on the dynamics of the species composition of Floodplain Mountain meadows of the Carpathians have not yet been conducted, which confirms the relevance of this study. The article presents the results of three-year studies conducted during 2017-2019 in the peasant farm of V.F. Martyshchuk (the Verkhovinsky District of the Ivano-Frankivsk region) to study the features of transformation of the species composition of natural phytocenoses of floodplain Meadows of the Black Cheremosh river of the mountain and forest belt of the Carpathians under the influence of their surface improvement with the use of organic and mineral fertilizers and sowing of a cereal mixture for haymaking use and Tribolium repens L. for multipurpose use. It was found that floodplain Meadow phytocenoses were mainly cereals and mixed grasses with a share of wild cereals of 57-58% (up to 15 of them % Festuca rubra L. s. str. and 5-6% of low-value ones in feed terms Calamagrostis arundinaceae (L.) Roth and Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv.), mixed grasses – 35-38% and unseeded Fabaceae 5-7%. When applying a set of measures for surface improvement of cereals and mixed grasses, low productive (within 1.95-2.15 t/ha of dry weight) floodplain mountain meadowlands, their species composition improved. For making P30K60 the content of wild plants increased by 2-5% Fabaceae, and N60P30K60 – by 9-10% unseeded Poaceae. For haymaking use, Poaceae with Phleum pratense L. and Festuca pratensis Huds. against the background of making N60P30K60 for sowing a mixture in the sod in the spring, their share increased to 74%, and for multi-year use and sowing Trifolium repens L. against the background of making P30K60 the quantity of Fabaceae increased to 44% or by 32%. The highest floral saturation (43 species from 19 families and 93-98% from perennials) was observed in variants without fertilization and with the introduction of P30K60 for multi-year use, which is 4-14 species more compared to haymaking use, or with the introduction of N60P30K60 and or with sowing a mixture of cereals on the background of N60P30K60 for haymaking use, or sowing Trifolium repens L. against the background of P30K60 for multipurpose use

Keywords: legumes, cereals, species composition, meadow phytocenosis, mixed grasses, floral saturation

https://doi.org/10.48077/scihor.24(8).2021.56-65