Growth and Development of Seedlings of Scots Pine and European Spruce Container Seedlings Using Various Materials to Neutralise the Substrate

Abstract.

The article analyses the features of growth and development of seedlings of Scots pine and European spruce on substrates in which various materials were used to neutralise them, affecting the reaction of the environment. According to the research results, the highest germination of seeds of both woody species was established on substrates with a ratio of dolomite flour of 30% and chalk of 70%, while in the case of using pure chalk, seed germination was significantly lower. Scots pine seeds germination in the substrate ranged from 77.6% to 90.1%, and European spruce seeds – from 66.4% to 94.3%. During the cultivation of seedlings of Scots pine and European spruce container seedlings, differences in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus are noted in all variants of the experiment. However, no definite pattern was found depending on the share of participation of various types of lime material. In the substrate of seedlings of Scots pine at the end of the growing season, the content of nitrate nitrogen naturally increases from 1069.1 to 1323.6 mg/100 g of absolutely dry substrate with a decrease in the proportion of dolomite and an increase in the proportion of chalk in the lime neutralising material. Another pattern is manifested when growing seedlings of European spruce container seedlings: the lowest content of nitrate nitrogen (412.1 mg/100 g of absolutely dry substrate) is established in the case of mixing dolomite flour and chalk in equal proportions (option 3). Differences in the content of mobile forms of iron were revealed in all experimental versions of the substrate of both woody species. For the cultivation of Scots pine, its amount ranges from 16.67 to 28.81 mg/100 g of absolutely dry substrate, and European spruce – from 18.40 to 20.99 mg/100 g of absolutely dry substrate. In general, low content of mobile iron was observed in the substrate of growing pine and spruce seedlings in containers. In all experimental variants, the height of seedlings of Scots pine container seedlings exceeds the required average height of the aboveground part in accordance with national standard by 1.3-2.0 times, and for seedlings of European spruce the excess was 1.2-1.5 times. In seedlings of Scots pine and European spruce, according to the variants of the experiment, the average height of the aboveground part rises with an increase in the concentration of dolomite in the mixture of neutralising material from 50% and higher

Keywords: container planting material, container seedlings, substrate composition, peat substrate, medium reaction, seed germination

https://doi.org/10.48077/scihor.24(4).2021.54-62