The article highlights the results of the mineral nutrition influence on the economic efficiency of winter wheat cultivation. The researches were carried out during 2010-2013 on the southern black earth, on the basis of the Educational Scientific and Practical Center of the Mykolayiv NAU. Researches object was wheat winter - grade Chain armour and Doneckaya 48. Technology of their cultivating, with the exception of under study factors, was Ukraine customary in existing zone recommendations for Southern Steppe. The purpose of our researches was definition of economic efficiency and repayment of the unit of active fertiliser substance by increment of the grain yield depending on optimisation of mineral meal of grades plants wheat Southern Ukraine Steppe winter for cultivating of them in conditions. It is installed that under study an action substantially influenced not only to the level of productivity of the grain of winter wheat and his quality, and to economic efficiency of cultivating of culture. As a result of the conducted researches it was established that the regardless of the dose and ratio of nutrients in fertilizers, the net profit with their introduction increased, in compare to the unfertilized control in both varieties. However, the application of the mineral nitrogen in doses N30 and N60 during the cultivation of winter wheat variety Kolchuga led to the decreasing of the level of profitability in compare with control, while this data in the Donetska 48 variety increased. The lowest level of profit for both studied varieties is due to the high cost of this complex fertilizer under the culture of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer – N16P16K16. We find it necessary at cultivating of agricultural crops, in particular winter wheat, to improve basic elements of the technology promoting increase of harvests for decrease of material inputs and increases of ratings of economic efficiency. In find researches this use of calculated dose of fertilisers. Specified questions are expediently to continue to investigate in connection with their exclusive relevance for all agroclimatic zones of Ukraine

Keywords: winter wheat, fertile background, varieties, estimated dosage of fertilizers, profitability level, net profit, payback